The development and changes in the nineteenth century in england and the adoption of capitalism
Brief history of capitalism
Industrial capitalism , characterized by its use of heavy machinery and a much more pronounced division of labor. Yet the title of the world's first stock market deservedly goes to that of seventeenth-century Amsterdam, where an active secondary market in company shares emerged. Numerous French authors helped to cement French policy around mercantilism in the 17th century. When the breakthrough occurred it was not just a question of economics, but politics and ideology as well. Textile exports accounted for between a third and a half of total production, with colonial and African markets again taking a huge share. But on one essential question they were right. The free workers were "free workers" in the double sense that they neither formed part of the means of production nor owned the means of production that transformed land and even money into what we now call "capital". Insufficient silver was mined; declining imports from the New World did not affect only Spain. Genuine exchange between town and country--the exchange of handicraft and agricultural products--was inhibited, and there was a one-way flow of agricultural and peasant handicraft products to the towns, a weak market for urban handicraft products and false impression of circulation
But he is dealing with Bengal rather than the region around Agra--that is, a region several hundred miles from that studied by Habib. But even the day labourer could buy tobacco and sugar.
The free trade treaty of of the French foreign minister, the count de Vergennes, also had unfortunate consequences: France was flooded by cheap English textiles, peasant weavers were distressed, and the ground was prepared for the popular risings of In the Arab empires of the Middle East the goods traded by the merchants were produced by peasants exploited by big landowners, by self employed artisans or, occasionally, by state enterprises--not by enterprises run by the merchants themselves.
In these cases transitional forms to fully capitalist production flourished--for instance, the putting-out system in the towns, share-cropping in the countryside. Marx was, however, wrong to use the category to describe medieval and early modern India.
This led to a cascade of effects whereby successful tenant farmers became agrarian capitalists; unsuccessful ones became wage-labourers, required to sell their labour in order to live; and landlords promoted the privatisation and renting out of common land, not least through the enclosures. There were some municipal institutions, such as the Bank of Hamburg and the great Bank of Amsterdam, which played a crucial part in Dutch economic growth by bringing order to the currency and facilitating transfers. The crisis which led to the fall of the Mongol dynasty and its replacement by the Ming occurred at the same time as the great crisis of the 14th century in feudal Europe and seems to have had similar roots. But these points alone leave unanswered the question of why countries like Holland and Britain could then begin to undergo further changes before the rest of the world. The city republics maintained their political independence from Empire and Church , traded with North Africa , the Middle East and Asia , and introduced Eastern practices. Capitalism is not a product of some peculiarly European development. As above, pxix.
The classes associated with the new ways of producing wealth had to fight against the stranglehold of old rulers. H Berktay, in H Mukhia edas above, p Important Chinese techniques like printing and iron casting were not adopted, even though there were groups of Arabian merchants in southern Chinese cities who would have been aware of these innovations.
Causes of capitalism
Only the interests of the top executives of the great corporations coincide with the interests of the shareholders or rentier capitalists. Liverpool merchant bankers, heavily involved in the slave-based trades, extended vital credit to the early cotton manufacturers of its Lancashire hinterland. As above, p3. This was because of considerable similarities in both the relations of exploitation and the productive forces. There is not merely economic growth, but compulsive accumulation. It can only be correct to identify tax-based exploitation of the peasantry as constituting a different mode of production if it results in a fundamentally different dynamic to society. But, as we have seen, he was fundamentally mistaken in seeing India as an unchanging society with a static economy. Great houses, such as the Fuggers, had been ruined. But, and here was the major difference with similar crises at the end of the Sung period in China and the Abbasid period in Mesopotamia, the development of the forces of production resumed where it had left off after relatively brief periods, based on the beginning of the emergence of new relations of production. The not so dark ages There is a traditional, purely European, view of history which sees the second half of the first millennium AD as one of stagnation and then regression, the 'Dark Ages'. Stock exchanges, commercial in their original function, dealt increasingly in government stocks. Others invested in canals. The plantations were themselves by-products of a new economic system. The shipbuilding district of Zaan , near Amsterdam, became one of the world's earliest known industrialized areas, with around wind-powered sawmills at the end of the 17th century. Governments tried to prevent the clipping of coins and so revalued.
Just as the Indian societies were experiencing this 'ruralisation', there was a contrary process taking place across the Middle East and North Africa and in Moorish Spain.
based on 81 review