An analysis of japanese carmakers
Practices In the lean years following World War II, Japanese managers were not sure how to accommodate these changing market needs and the potential export requirements of low-cost, high-quality vehicles.
For additional explanation of this data, see M. However, Toyota-style techniques do require considerable cooperation among managers, workers, and suppliers.
For my next car purchase, I bought a Honda. Ohno then asked production workers to conduct their own inspections. In order to become more efficient than U. He first read about the idea of a pull system in a Japanese newspaper that described this practice in the U.
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Japanese car manufacturers ranking
For Nissan and Toyota including Toyota Motor Sales , I multiplied the percentage of manufacturing costs listed in the yuka shoken hokokusho Japanese K reports , added other operating expenses incurred in-house executive and other non-manufacturing employee compensation, retirement and severance payments, and depreciation , and divided by sales minus operating profits. These consisted of revisions in American and European equipment, production techniques, and labor and supplier policies introduced primarily in the s and s, when total Japanese manufacturing volumes and volumes per model were extremely low by U. Passenger vehicles also came to require more equipment and options, as well as a variety of styles and more frequent model changes, especially as the Japanese companies improved their vehicles incrementally. What they weren't famous for was design flair, innovative marketing and driving passion. Tighter synchronization between subassembly production, parts deliveries, and final assembly increased equipment utilization and reduced in-process inventories, while mixed scheduling of different components or models on single machines or assembly lines avoided specialized but underutilized equipment and workers. GM and Ford stopped publishing data on payments to suppliers after , so I could not calculate their levels of integration for — Toyota started to mix the loading of components in small lots for machine tools and to mix model runs on final assembly lines to raise equipment utilization as well as lower inventories. Japanese-run automobile plants located in Tennessee Nissan , Ohio Honda , and California the Toyota-GM NUMMI joint venture have demonstrated higher levels of productivity and quality, and nearly equivalent process flexibility the ability to assemble a number of distinct models on the same lines without reducing productivity or quality compared with U. Toyota synchronized engine and transmission machining with final assembly, to reduce further in-process inventories. The increasing flexibility of assembly lines and small-lot production, on the other hand, made it possible to introduce gradually a greater variety of models, options, and variations for different export markets — with little or no decrease in productivity. Until recent years, some Japanese automakers offered models in only two combinations — standard and deluxe. Japan's rise to automotive pre-eminence was based on several key strengths, including focus, consistency and detail-oriented engineering. In , Toyota turned over its inventory merely three times, and in merely eight times — worse than U. Please log in to bookmark this story.
Furthermore, during the s and s, rather than copying U. It should be noted that Honda, as well as NUMMI in California, simulates some effects of just-in-time production by keeping parts away from production lines and in warehousing areas and delivering components to assembly only as they are needed.
A dozen high-salaried American engineers came to Japan for two years and set up operations.
As an example of rapid setup, Toyota lowered stamping-press changeover times for dies from two or three hours in previous years to fifteen minutes, through techniques such as automating as much of the process as possible, doing preparations for the changeover while machines were running, and training teams to specialize in setup.
As it turned out, I was one small part of a tectonic shift in the automotive firmament. The increasing flexibility of assembly lines and small-lot production, on the other hand, made it possible to introduce gradually a greater variety of models, options, and variations for different export markets — with little or no decrease in productivity.
Japanese-run automobile plants located in Tennessee NissanOhio Hondaand California the Toyota-GM NUMMI joint venture have demonstrated higher levels of productivity and quality, and nearly equivalent process flexibility the ability to assemble a number of distinct models on the same lines without reducing productivity or quality compared with U.
based on 110 review